E.L. Thorndike has formulated the three laws from his numerous studies and experiment, which are as follows:
I. law of readiness
II. law of exercise
a) law of use
b) law of disuse
III. law of effect
I. Law of Readiness:
This law is indicative of learner’s state to participate in the learning process. According to Thorndike, readiness is preparation for action. Readiness does not come automatically with maturation, according to this law when a bond is ready to act gives satisfaction and not to act gives annoyance.
Classroom application of this law.
1. The teacher should prepare the minds of the students to be ready to accept the knowledge, skills and aptitudes. For this, the teacher should provide opportunities for these experience in which the students can spontaneously participate.
2. Teacher gives importance to physiological readiness. Readiness to act is indirectly linked with the satisfaction derived from such acts.
3. Needs are to be activated in the pupils. In other words, the teachers are to arouse their capacity to link to their everyday life. Simple and complex should be the method for teaching. Aptitude tests should be given to the students to find out the readiness to learn.
II. Law of exercise:
This law is divided into two sub parts
(a) law of use
( b) law of disuse
With practice, the connection is strengthened, that is, more frequently a performance is repeated, more prompt and definite it becomes.
For example : a student reads a lesson a number of times to master it or plays a musical tune a number of times before she is able to play it easily. This is the law of use which is one of the most common laws and is widely use in life and education.
An activity which is not used, exercised or repeated for a long time tends to be forgotten which means that when practice is discontinued connection is weakened. This is the law of disuse.
Classroom application of this law :
1. More and more opportunities should be given to students to use and repeat the knowledge they get in class.
2. To maintain the connection for a longer period, review of the learnt material is necessary.
3. Practice or drill plays an important role in primary classes, specially in learning of multiplication tables, alphabets, rhymes and word meanings.
III. Law of Effect:
This law explains the importance of effect or consequence or results in strengthening or weakening of connections. This law takes place when a modifiable connection between the situation and response is made and is accompanied or followed by a satisfying state of affairs that connection strength increases if followed by an annoying state of affairs then the connection strength decreases. This law is the law of reward and punishment activities which are accompanied by a feeling of pleasure which meets our needs of pleasure which meets our needs, satisfies our goals in which we are interested and more readily and effectively learnt than those that are unpleasant and annoying.
Classroom application of this law :
1. A pleasing environment should be created in the classroom.
2. The teacher should be sympathetic but firm. The teacher should himself or herself enjoy working.
3. Experiences provided to the students should be satisfying and meaningful. They should be organized in the order of increasing difficulties so that they can cope with failure and success.
4. Material should be provided in a number of ways for example – audio-visual methods should be frequently used so that the novelty may be maintained.
5 Guidance, praise and encouragement that gives pleasure and satisfaction of knowing that he is on the right path should be properly used.