A . Meaning of learning
Definition: learning is defined as a process of modification of reactions resulting from experience or practice. It is also defined as the acquisition of behavior patterns. It is the modification and Co-relation of the responses of the organism. Guilford defines learning ” as any change in behavior resulting from behaviour “. Learning is a process of being modified by past experience and practice. Learning is essentially an active process. Learning requires practice. It is enrichment of experience.
B . Characteristics of learning.
All learning involves activity and the activity that leads to learning may be physical or mental :
1) Motor learning : Learning that depends largely on motor and physical activities and leads to acquisition of skills is called motor learning.
This learning starts in the infancy making simple responses for mastering motor skills.
For example: walking, running, jumping etc.
2) verbal and conceptual learning :
Learning that depends almost fully on sensation, perception memory and thinking leads to the acquisition of knowledge and understanding and this learning is called verbal learning.
For example : learning to do simple arithmetic and answering simple questions.
3. Incidental learning:
Sometimes we learn although we did not make any clear-cut response to the situation or consciously attended to it. Such learning is called incidental learning.
For example: learning names of shops on the way to school
4. Deliberate learning:
We discriminate and select what we want to learn and then we make an effort to learn and acquire it. This is called incidental or deliberate learning.
For example: learning to play the piano or ride a bicycle
This is another form of learning which involves acquiring information above ourselves or the world, and learning how to solve problems in different situations.
6. Attitudinal learning:
This involves learning about the likes and dislikes for our day to day living.
For example: a child may love sports but hate watching a film.
C. FACTORS IN EFFECTIVE LEARNING.
1. Curiosity to know arising out of a sense of need is principle factor of learning.
2. Mere need is not enough. Will or readiness to satisfy is also necessary otherwise the curiosity to know falls short of fulfillment.
3. From the need of knowledge arises observation or exploration.
4. Fruitful observation involves attention.
5. Act of learning must be repeated with observation.
6. Repetition should be strengthened by a motive.
7. Knowledge of result- if they are told from time to time about their progress they are making, then they do better.
8. Interest and success strengthen the practice of learning.
9. Reward and punishment are the reinforcing factors of learning.
10. Maturation and Interest: a mature person learns sooner and also those who have strong interest learn better.
11. Methods of learning: for studying different subjects and learning different types of skills or for assimilating different materials, facts and thoughts, we have to adopt different learning methods